This course combines fetal and child osteology with the study of how the remains of children and infants can contribute to understanding past peoples. Theory and methods are utilized to explore the varied ways in which fetal and child skeletal remains are integral to interpretations of population and child health, childhood experiences in the past and differences in environmental stress between populations over both time and space. Methods of assessing sex, age, and growth and development will be covered, including a critique of limitations.